Don Gorges BCcampus Workshop Activity 4: Life of a CC-BY open textbook

Scroll down to COPY in RED which marks the start of my response to Badgeable Activity 4: Life of a CC-BY open textbook

Badgeable Activity 4: Life of a CC-BY open textbook

Think about the life of an open textbook. Start from the creation of the book and map out how that book can be distributed, modified, remixed, adapted and redistributed. Think back to the video we watched in week one that showed how open educational resources work.

Create a flowchart of the life of that open textbook from creation to distribution, reuse and remix and so on down the line. Try to imagine what the life of the textbook could look at once it has been copied and redistributed, remixed and altered numerous times and in various different contexts. Ask yourself: Who are the players in the life of an open textbook, and what roles do they have? How might the life of the textbook be different if the textbook had a more restrictive license, such as CC-BY-ND ? (Remember, an -ND or non-derivative license does not allow the book to be changed or modified.)

Think of a metaphor for the life of the textbook, like this one which compares the lifecycle of an open educational resource to that of milk. Can you think of other analogies that could work which explain the lifecycle of an open textbook?

COW MILK graphics

BCcampus oer-milk-diagram.png

A number of myths perpetuate about Open Educational Resources. This section of the infoKit aims to explain and dispel some of them.

UKOER myths

The JISC CETIS team have established a page around OER myths for the JISC/Academy Pilot Programmme: OER release.

The sharing myth

JISC has commissioned a number of studies into the ‘sharing’ of learning and teaching resources (Community Dimensions of Learning Object Repositories CD LOR, Trust in Digital Repositories TRUST DR,   WM-Share,  RepoMMan, Rights and Rewards survey, Sharing e-learning contentGood Intentions report) and also funded a series of projects focussed on ‘exchange’of learning resources (Exchange for Learning Programme (X4L). These two terms are often used in relation to OERs but it is useful to clarify what we mean by some of these terms in this context.

When we use the word sharing we usually imply an intent – where someone, or some organisation, chooses to share something of value with either a specific audience or more widely. This is different to ‘exchanging‘ where both/all parties want, and agree to, share for some mutual benefit.  Whilst often overlooked, the difference between these two actions is significant, particularly in relation to business models and benefits. It could be argued that sharing implies an open model (sharing with all) and exchange a community based model which relies on mutual benefits within a specific community. Some community models (such as International Virtual Medical School – IVIMEDS) began with an exchange model between subscribing institutions but have had to adapt the model to recognise that not all partners can contribute equally in terms of content. The value of having a strong community of practice makes membership attractive with the content not always being the primary consideration.

Terms such as reuse and re-purposing may imply an underlying principle of sharing (sometimes enforced as a condition of funding), but people may not necessarily be consciously intending to share. Some take, some give and some do both, for a range of reasons. It can be useful to consider sharing and exchange as processes relating to OER Release (either conscious or not) but it is the intent behind the various initiatives, activities and services that is important to the resulting approaches that individuals, communities or institutions adopt.

Whilst there may be reluctance on the part of teachers to engage with business terminology, (Sustainability and Revenue Models for Online Academic Resources: an Ithaka report) thinking about the stakeholders in the OER movement in relation to a producer/consumer model can help people to look at things a little differently.

An interesting OER metaphor

This is not intended to compare OERs with commercial products but was developed to illustrate the value in considering the different roles that exist in the production and use/re-use of OERs and to highlight the importance of considering end users (by Lou McGill for Good Intentions: improving the evidence base in support of sharing learning materials Open Educational Repositories: Share, Improve, Reuse | Edinburgh 25-26 March 2009. Keynote )

This table uses the example of cows milk and attempts to liken these to roles within OER relase (third column):

Milk Role OERs
Cow Primary producer/Creator Teacher/Author
Calf Primary consumer Enrolled student
Farmer Secondary producer/repurposer Learning technologist/Course leader
Milk bottlers Primary supplier Learning technologist
Shop Secondary supplier deposit in institutional repository or open deposit
Human family Secondary consumer Teacher within or outside institution
Human family and pets Sharers and re-users Enroled students of that teacher
Person with milk, Person with cocoa powder, Person with sugar – can make chocolate Exchange and repurposers other teachers within or outside institution
Chocolate in shop fridge repository deposit in different open repositories
Chocolate eaten re-users/maybe sharing; ) potentially global learners
Chocolate added to cake mixture further re-purposing potentially global teachers

One way of visually representing this analogy:

COW MILK graphics

BCcampus oer-milk-diagram.png

BCcampus oer-milk-diagram

Attribution: An interesting OER metaphor from JISC Open Educational Resources infoKit released under a CC-BY-SA licensePost your illustration online (you can post anywhere you wish or, if you are looking for a space, we have a shared Google Doc that you can use) and apply for the badge by clicking on “apply for this badge” below. I’ve set up a document that you can paste your assignment into…____________

Life of a CC-BY Open Textbook

For creating a visual flowchart or network diagram showing the different ways a CC-BY open textbook can be used.

Apply for this Badge

Life Cycle of an Open Textbook

You can post your life cycle diagram anywhere on the web (Flickr, Dropbox, etc) or, as an alternative within this Google Doc. Add your name and a CC license for your image.

Your name: Marilyn1
Image <insert your image>
<pick a CC license for your image and enter it here>

The Author of an original creative work applies a CC BY license so anyone may copy and change their work and redistribute the results in any medium or format, for any purpose, even commercially, provided one gives the Author credit, provides a link to the license, indicates, in any reasonable manner, if changes were made, but not in any way suggest the Author endorses you or your use.

Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)

You are free to:

  • Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material
  • for any purpose, even commercially.
  • The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms.

Under the following terms:

  • No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.


  • You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
  • No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.

This week’s badgeable activity is to create a graphic, video or some other type of visual representation of the life of a CC-BY open textbook that takes into account the adaptable nature of the book. [CC-BY license reference above]

I understand why it is helpful in this Workshop to use the terms “Life Cycle” and “Open Textbook” to visualize the current creative processes, although it’s the short-term viewpoint – a snap-shot in a continuum.
Taking a longer view, we are moving through stages of our development, through higher levels of technology enablement – evolving – transitioning – to a new paradigm of personalization, individual ownership, control and optimization.

In Theory, one has a lifelong curated library with all the educational resources we’ve ever accessed, used  – Ultimately we may each have a “one and only” personal Textbook Indexed on our personal server, with WATSON inside.

For this Workshop Activity, my contribution to the design of a visual of the Life Cycle of an Open Textbook is my perspective of a personal learning continuum

I find the 360 degrees of a Sphere works for me as a visual metaphor of the continuum and submit these 2 examples:

Pearl Sphere builds upon and around a centre, over time

Qubit-Bloch Sphere – 360 degrees, XYZ axis, includes a timeline

Open Design 01

I wondered what art might be posted online related to the open textbook publishing process or life cycle and reviewed results of many Image searches – although many perspectives show-up, I didn’t see one which meets the criteria of a visual flowchart or network diagram showing the different ways a CC-BY open textbook can be used.

This Final Week Project is a another design research project to develop the concept of Open Design Educational Resources to meet expectations of Professors and their Students where Canadian Edition Textbooks are currently used.

I found this case study points to the importance of having full access to course information and an understanding of the Professor’s expectations in order to evaluate how-when-where available open source content will match the textbooks’ scope and sequence and provide other options.

Case Study:

1st year Economics course taught to BComm Students by Professor James E. Pesando, Department of Economics, University of Toronto
Economics 100: Introduction to Economics  — ECO 100Y1

Syllabus found online indicates Professor uses 2 Canadian Edition Textbooks and a Study Guide in his course


Economics 100: Introduction to Economics  — ECO 100Y1

Christopher Ragan, Macroeconomics, (14th Canadian Edition, 2014)

Gregory Mankiw et. al., Principles of Microeconomics (6th Canadian Edition, 2014)

S. Manouchehri and P. Fortura, Study Guide to accompany Gregory Mankiw et. al. Principles of Microeconomics (6th Canadian Edition, 2014)

Syllabus: Course topics sequence

Week of – Topic – Mankiw, Chapters
September 8, 2014 The Economic Way of Thinking 1, 2
September 15, 2014 The Gains from Trade 3
September 22, 2014 Demand, Supply and Market Price 4
September 29, 2014 Elasticity 5
October 6, 2014 Demand and Supply: Applications 6
*October 13, 2014 Consumer Demand Theory 7, 21
October 17, 2014 Term Test #1
October 20, 2014 The Costs of Production 13
October 27, 2014 Perfect Competition 14
November 3, 2014 Monopoly 15
November 10, 2014 Oligopoly 17
November 17, 2014 Monopolistic Competition 16
November 24, 2014 Applications No Reading
November 28, 2014 Term Test #2
January 5, 2015 Resource Markets 18, 19
(Factors of Production)
Labour Market
January 12, 2015 Externalities 10
January 19, 2015 Role of Government 11
Week of Topic Ragan, Chapters
January 26, 2015 Measuring National Income 19, 20
February 2, 2015 Aggregate Demand and the 21, 22
February 9, 2015 Aggregate Demand and 23, 24
Aggregate Supply
February 16, 2015 Reading Week
February 23, 2015 Aggregate Demand and
Aggregate Supply (cont’d)
February 27, 2015 Term Test #3
March 2, 2015 Money, Banking, Monetary Policy 27, 28, 29
March 9, 2015 Unemployment, Inflation 30, 31
March 16, 2015 International Trade 33, 34
March 23, 2015 International Trade; 35
Exchange Rates


Beginning of Year Announcements


  1. I cannot admit students to the section.
  2. No cameras are to be used in class.
  3. Lecture notes will not be distributed.
  4. Check website, periodically, for announcements.
  5. There are no Friday classes unless announced in advance (Friday classes will only be held if we fall behind schedule, which has not occurred in previous years).
  6. The text covers several topics that I do not address in lectures. Students are required, for examination purposes, to know topics that are covered in class plus topics which I indicate specifically to be “Reading Assignments.” Topics covered in the text but not in lectures are supplementary to the course, and will help to develop an appreciation for the subject matter of economics.

Password access to:

Economics 100  — Lecture Outline – James E. Pesando 

1 The Economic Way of Thinking
2 The Gains from Trade
3 Demand, Supply and Market Price
4 Elasticity of Demand
5 Supply, Demand and Government Policy
6 Consumer Demand Theory
7 Production and Cost Schedules
8 Perfect Competition
9 Monopoly
10 Oligopoly and Monopolistic Competition
11 Markets for Factors of Production
12 Labour Markets and Externalities
13 The Role of Government and Competition Policy
14 Applications/Review
15 Macroeconomics: Introduction
16 National Income and the Price Level (Part I)
17 Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply
18 Money, Banking, Monetary Policy
19 Unemployment, Labour Force Activity, Inflation
20 Fiscal Policy: Key Issues
21 International Trade
22 Review

Open Textbooks are listed below

A number of textbooks could cover the scope of Professors Lecture notes and  Agenda – Class Schedule – Topics / Chapter coverage

Need Peer Review of textbooks against benchmarks to compare alternative sections selected curated copied-out of other textbooks

Search Textbooks on “Prices of Economics Textbooks” database at PoET: University of Toronto

Boundless Online Textbooks

$19.99 Alternative to principles-of-microeconomics-6th-n-gregory-mankiw-0538453044-9780538453042 from Boundless


OpenStax Textbooks


BCcampus Textbooks  _ Available results: 5

BCcampus Principles of Microeconomics: OpenStax
Author(s): Timothy Taylor, Macalester College
Date: Jan 12, 2015

BCcampus Principles of Macroeconomics Faculty reviewed
Author(s): Timothy Taylor, Macalester College
Date: Sep 9, 2014

BCcampus Principles of Economics Faculty reviewed
Author(s): Timothy Taylor, Macalester College, Steven A. Greenlaw, University of Mary Washington
Date: Sep 8, 2014


BCcampus Principles of Microeconomics: Saylor Faculty reviewed
Author(s): Libby Rittenberg , Tim Tregarthen
Date: Jan 5, 2015

BCcampus Macroeconomics: Theory through Applications Faculty reviewed
Author(s): Russell Cooper, A. Andrew John
Date: Oct 28, 2014


Macroeconomics, Fourteenth Canadian Edition Plus MyEconLab with Pearson eText — Access Card Package (14th Edition) Paperback – Feb 22 2013

Hide other formats and editions

Amazon Price New from Used from
CDN$ 129.35
CDN$ 108.88 CDN$ 89.95


Principles of Microeconomics Ring-bound


Study Guide for Principles of Microeconomics, Sixth Canadian Edition Paperback – Nov 27 2013

Hide other formats and editions

Amazon Price New from Used from
Paperback, Nov 27 2013
CDN$ 22.95
CDN$ 20.00 CDN$ 20.00


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